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Mini is a British automotive brand established in 1969, is owned by German automobile company BMW in 2000 and used it for a number of small cars. The word mini was used in the names of the models of cars since 1959, and in 1969 became a brand in its own right, when the name "mini" was replaced by separate "mini-Austin" and "Morris mini" car model names. BMW acquired the brand in 1994 when it bought the Rover Group, which owned mini, among other brands.
Original mini line of small British cars manufactured by British motor Corporation BMC, which in 1966 became part of British Motor holdings. This merged with Leyland motors in 1968 to form British Leyland. In the 1980s, British Leyland was broken-and in 1988 Rover group, including mini, was acquired by the company "British aerospace". Mini models include the Morris mini-Minor and Austin seven, the countryman, Moke, 1275GT and fastest in the world. Versions of the models used the name Cooper, due to partnerships with legendary racer John Cooper. The original mini continued in production until 2000.
In 1994, Rover Group was acquired by BMW, collapsed in 2000, with BMW retaining the Mini brand. The development of the modern successor to the mini began in 1995, and a brand new mini model was launched in 2001 by BMW. The current mini range includes the hardtop / Hatch / convertible three-door hatchback, Clubman estate, countryman five-door crossover, coupe / Roadster and Paceman three-door crossover based on the countryman.
Mini Hatch / hardtop, Hatchback, Coupe, and Roadster BMW are assembled at the plant in Cowley, Oxford, England. Mini convertible and countryman going to the company VDL Nedcar in born, Netherlands, mini Hatch / hardtop, too, are gathered here, in addition to the Oxford plant. What was before 2016 are assembled by Magna Steyr in Austria. Were sold worldwide in 2012, a total of 301.526 mini cars. Mini-vans take an active part in rallying and the Mini Cooper s won the Rally Monte Carlo three times in 1964, 1965 and 1967. Mini has participated in the world rally championship since 2011 through the Prodrive WRC group.
In April 2013, Peter Schwarzenbauer became the new Minis managing Director, replacing Jochen Goller.
On April 1, 2019, BMW named Bernd Kerber as Director of the mini brand and was replaced by Peter Schwarzenbauer.
1.1. History. 1959 to 1990. (1959 по 1990)
The original two-door mini small car produced British motor Corporation BMC and its successors from 1959 until 2000. He is considered an icon of the 1960-ies, and its compact front-wheel drive layout that allowed 80% of the area of the bottom of the machine will be used for the carriage of passengers and Luggage influenced a whole generation of cars. The car is in some ways considered the British equivalent of his German Contemporaries, "Volkswagen beetle", which enjoyed similar popularity in North America. In 1999 the Mini was voted the second most influential car of the 20th century, behind the Ford model T.
This distinctive two-door car was designed for BMC Sir Alec Issigonis. It was manufactured at the Longbridge and Cowley plants in England, the Victoria Park / zetland British Motor Corporation Australia factory in Sydney, Australia, and later also in Spain Authi, Belgium, Chile, Italy Innocenti, Portugal, South Africa, Uruguay, Venezuela and Yugoslavia. Mini mark I had three major UK updates: the mark II, Clubman and mark III. They had a whole series of variations, including station wagons, pickup truck, van and mini-Moka - jeep-like buggy. Mini Cooper and Cooper "s" were sportier versions that were successful as rally, winning the Rally Monte Carlo four times from 1964 to 1967, although in 1966 the mini was disqualified after the finish, along with six other British participants, which included the first four cars to finish, under a questionable decision that the vehicle used illegal combination of headlamps and spotlights. At first, the kids were sold under the Austin and Morris names as the Austin Seven and Morris mini minor, until mini became a marque in its own right in 1969. Mini again under the name Austin in the 1980-ies.
1.2. History. From 1990 to 2000. (С 1990 по 2000 год)
In 1990-e years, the BMW group seeks to expand its lineup by adding a compact car and SUVs. This caused a series of compact concept car from the company in the early 1990-ies. The first were the E1 and Z13, powered by an electric engine, and rear engine 1100 CC BMW motorcycle, respectively.
In early 1994, BMW acquired the Rover group and the "British aerospace", which owned mini, among other brands. BMW insisted that even a compact model must feature traditional BMW features such as rear-wheel drive to comply with the company standards and image. The "mini" brand however did not share these standards and BMW saw this as an opportunity for a competitive price but premium compact car. This formed BMWs plan to launch a series of premium-class BMW 1-and mid-level mini.
It was around this time that Rover, too, is working on the successor to the original Mini. His first idea was the ACV30, which was presented at Rally Monte Carlo in 1997. The name was partially acronym of anniversary concept vehicle, whilst 30 represented the 30 years that have passed since a mini first won the Rally Monte Carlo. The car itself was a two-door coupe powered by a rear engine mg F.
A few months later Rover released another concept, this time a pair of vehicles called spiritual and spiritual too. These vehicles were a more realistic attempt to create a modern mini and coincided with BMWs official creation of the mini-project. Although the two-door and four-door pair wore mini badges, both vehicles remained purely concepts.
In 1998, BMW on creating the production mini. The first aspect that was considered was the design which was chosen from 15 full-scale research. Five of these projects came from BMW Germany another five from BMW Designworks acts in California, four from Rover and one from outside Studio in Italy. The selected design from BMW Designworks performs was designed by American designer Frank Stephenson. Stevenson wrote a new mini R50 and Mini Cooper led a team which developed the E50 car in Munich parallel development in England of the team on the Rover was discontinued in 1995. This design, being a city car, also fits the BMW plan of two compact cars leaving the supermini class for the BMW 1 series. After the launch of the new MINI, Stephenson told automotive magazine car:
1.3. History. 2000-present. (2000-настоящее время)
The last mark VII mini, and 5.387.862 and final original two-door Mini to be produced, a red Cooper sport, was built at the Longbridge plant in October 2000. The car drove on the production line, pop singer Lulu, and was subsequently placed in the heritage motor Centre in Gaydon, alongside the first mini mark I ever made. New mini-generation hatch / hardtop went on sale in July 2001 and was an instant sales success.
In February 2005, BMW announced the investment of £ 100 million in the mini plant in Oxford, UK, creating 200 new jobs and enabling production to increase by 20%.
At the North American international auto show in January 2011, BMW announced that it will expand the mini range with the launch of two new two-door sporty crossover based on the Mini than the concept car, with the coupe scheduled to launch in 2011 and a Roadster to follow in 2012. In June 2011, BMW announced to invest £ 500 million in the UK over the next three years as part of the expansion of the mini-series to seven models.
In July 2017, BMW announced that the mini electric model will be built at the Cowley plant in Oxford, which will begin production in 2019. He also will be produced in China.
2. Production model. (Модель производства)
Mini mark II 1967 to 1970. (Мини Марк II 1967 по 1970)
The mini received some minor modifications in 1967 as sold under the name Austin or Morris Mini in most markets.
2.1. Production model. Mini mark I 1959 to 1967. (Мини Марк я 1959 по 1967 год)
Launched in August 1959, the Mark 1 Mini code name ADO 15 was initially marketed as the Austin seven and Morris mini-minor.
Mark and mini can be identified by exterior door hinges, sliding door glass, tail lights smaller than later cars and a "mustache" grille. Series of motors in a wide range of capacities initially as a 848 CC but was added later 997, 998, 1071 and 1275 CC engines. Not Cooper cars gearboxes with the "magic wand" selector, with 4-speed, no synchromesh on 1st while the Coopers has a remote shift switch. Automatic 4-speed transmission was introduced in 1965. In 1960, a 2-seater van was released, along with property, General long wheelbase in 1961 the pickup was also presented based on a long wheelbase
2.2. Production model. Mini-marks in III–VII from 1969 to 2000. (Мини-метки в III–VII от 1969 до 2000)
Mark III Mini was released in 1969 which was an updated version of mark II with a modified bodyshell. The most visible changes were larger doors with concealed hinges. The boot lid lost the original hinged number plate and its recess shape and a large rear colored lamps were set into place along with larger rear side Windows. Sliding Windows were replaced with winding Windows - although some Australian-made brand Minis I have adopted this feature in 1965 with opening quarterlight Windows. Suspension came back from Hydrolastic to rubber cones. as a cost-saving measure. Production at the Cowley plant was ended, and the simple name mini completely replaced the separate Austin and Morris brands.
In mark IV, released in 1976 introduced a front rubber mounted subframe with single tower bolts and larger bushes in the rear of the frame. In addition to the indicators, two legs were introduced with larger foot pedals, and since 1977, bulb rear turn signal reverse light included in them.
Mark V, launched in 1984, introduced 8.4-inch 210mm brake discs and plastic wheel arches mini special arches, but retained the same mark IV body shape.
On the mark VI, launched in 1990, the points of attachment of the engine was moved forward to take 1.275 units SS power, and includes the HIF carburettor version plus the single point fuel injected car which came out in 1991. With 998 units of CC power have been discontinued. The release of the inner hood were installed in 1992.
On the mark VII, launched in 1996 was the final version of the original two-door mini. For this model, two injection point with the front of the radiator was introduced, along with full width panels and the drivers side airbag.
2.3. Production model. Mini Hatch / hardtop 2001 to 2006. (Мини Люк / хардтоп 2001 по 2006)
All mini models since 2001 have different variants, including the entry-level Cooper s sports and John Cooper works JCW high class.
The hatchback / hardtop mini was the first model of the new generation Mini, introduced in 2001, and was then known as simply mini. It was available in Cooper s and one variations at launch. In many European markets, the mini one was powered by a 1.4 litre I4 version of the Tritec engine but all other petrol mini used the 1.6 litre I4 version. Cooper and JCW model s included the intake system of the supercharger. This generation mini was the only model of production, and replaced the turbocharger from the second generation onwards.
The names Cooper and Cooper S followed the names used for the sporty version of the classic Mini, which in turn came from the involvement of John Cooper and the Cooper car company. The Cooper heritage is further emphasised with the range of John Cooper works JCW configuration options that are available with the mini. John Cooper has created one of the racing model of the mini Cooper called a Mini Cooper S works. This car featured many extras which help to improve the performance such as a racing exhaust and air filter as well as improved suspension. The car was also one of a kind 17 inch 430 mm racing wheels.
MK I Mini Cooper and Cooper used some version of the reliable, Brazilian Tritec engine developed jointly with Chrysler and BMW, mini D used a Toyota-built 1-I-TV diesel engine. In August 2006, BMW announced that future engines would be built in the UK, making the car essentially in Britain again, the final Assembly took place at Oxford, and the circulation of the body was made in the vicinity of Swindon at BMWs Swindon pressings Ltd subsidiary.
The last MK I variant was the Mini Cooper s John Cooper works GP kit: a Light, quasi-race-prepped John Cooper works model. Hand-finished by Bertone in Italy, it was offered as a limited production run of 2.000 cars during the 2006 model year, with 444 of those originally intended for the UK market, although ultimately, 459 were sold.
2.4. Production model. Mini convertible / cabriolet 2005 to 2008. (Мини-кабриолет / кабриолет 2005 по 2008 год)
At the 2004 salon International de lauto website, mini introduced a convertible model which was released in 2005, and is available in one, Cooper and Cooper s trim versions.
The convertible roof is fully automatic - an unusual feature in such a small car - and can be partially opened to act as the hatch, while the car is driving at speed. A convertible model cant get it up on the rear hatchback of the hardtop mini, replacing it with drop-down tailgate that resembles the classic mini - it incorporates similarly prominent external hinges, and the roof in the closed position, the rear roof section and Luggage shelf can be raised with two handles, semi-tailgate style, to access the Luggage space easier. The convertible also adds two small power Windows for rear seat passengers which are lowered automatically when the roof opens. The roof is made of heavy fabric with many layers of insulation, the rear window is glass with a built-in heater / defroster, but no washer or wiper.
At the 2007 North American international auto show, mini introduced the limited edition mini Cooper s sidewalk convertible. It had a top speed of 215 km / h 134 mph and accelerates from 0 to 100 kilometers per hour from 0 to 62 mph in 7.9 seconds. Engine 168 HP 125 kW and 220 nm 160 lbf⋅ft of torque.
2.5. Production model. Mini Hatch / hardtop 2007 to 2014. (Мини Люк / хардтоп 2007 по 2014 год)
Mini unveiled the all new second generation model of the sedan / hatch in November 2006 on the modernized platform incorporating many stylistic and technical changes. It uses the Prince engine, the architecture of which is shared with PSA Peugeot citroën and is designed to be more efficient and economical, and is manufactured at the BMW hams hall plant for the production of engines in Warwickshire, UK. Design and engineering was done in Munich, Germany in the headquarters of the BMW group and external third parties. Although the new model looks very similar to its predecessor, every panel was different and new safety requirements, as a result the overall length increasing by 60 mm 2.4 inch.
The second generation Mini was introduced in Cooper and Cooper s trim levels the range was supplemented in 2007 with a mini one. Was the first diesel-powered Cooper available from April 2007, and was called the Cooper D, which was supplemented in January 2011 with a new 2.0 l diesel for the automatic Cooper and high performance Cooper SD. A convertible and hatchback versions will follow later. In 2009 the mini first trim level was released in the UK, which is low-end, petrol-only version with less power and less speed. Mini John Cooper works Challenge is a purpose built race car based on the mini hatch, and manufactured in the factory BMW Motorsport in Munich. It was opened in 2007 at the IAA motor show. In 2009 at the world championship, John Cooper works 50 special edition was introduced in 2009, organizing a mini-festival at Silverstone.
2.6. Production model. Mini Clubman in 2008-2014. (Мини Clubman в 2008-2014)
Mini-worlds fastest mini-property, introduced for the 2008 model year and available in one, Cooper s and Cooper D variations. While identical to the Hatch / hardtop from the stands ahead and rent 240mm 9.4 in more General, with a correspondingly stretched wheelbase that is 80 mm 3.1 in more, this gives more rear seat leg and substantially increase cargo space compared with the sedan - 160 mm, 6.3 In long, 260 l of 9.2 cubic feet of space. It has two "curtains," alternately referred to as "the Splitdoor," enclosing the boot instead of to pull to the hatch, as well as a "Clubdoor" on the right side, regardless of the intended market. This means that for right-hand drive markets, the rear door on the side of the car, requiring rear passengers to exit onto the road. The engine and transmission options are identical to those used in the hatch / hardtop model, except the 66 kW 90 HP, 89 HP, one diesel and the rear suspension set-up shares many of the same structures, including the rear trailing arms and sway bars.
The use of the name "club" for mini van property was a break with classic mini tradition. "Worlds fastest" originally the name given to a facelift of the 1970-ies of the classic Mini, which mostly resulted in a square front end, whereas the classic Mini estates had traditionally called "traveller" or "countryman". However, BMW did not initially purchase the rights to use these names.
2.7. Production model. Mini convertible 2009 to 2015. (Мини-кабриолет 2009 по 2015 год)
The second mini-convertible generation was presented in 2009 at the Detroit auto show and the 2009 Geneva International motor show as a 2009 model car is available for sale at March 28, 2009. The device is marketed as the "Openometer" records the number of minutes the vehicle is operated with the roof removed. Available variants and corresponding powertrain options are the same as in the mini-row of lockers including diesel engine in some markets.
2.8. Production model. Mini Countryman 2011 to 2016. (Мини Countryman 2011 года до 2016 года)
The mini countryman was announced in January 2010, and officially launched at the Geneva motor show in 2010. This is the first mini-SUV, and the first five-door model will be launched in the BMW-era. It is offered with a choice of two - or four-wheel drive, known as ALL4, and with 1.6 l petrol or diesel and 2.0-liter diesel four-cylinder engines in various States of tune. Sales started in September 2010 as the model 2011 vehicle.
Countryman has a longer wheelbase, more interior room, and more ground clearance than the fastest in the world. It uses the same engines as the Hatch of the range / fastest in the world, but with the optional four-wheel drive transmission, dubbed "ALL4" to allow minimal off-road and rough terrain driving. A six-speed manual transmission is standard on all models with automatic transmission available on all petrol and diesel models except the 90 BHP One D.
2.9. Production model. Mini coupe 2012-2015. (Мини-купе 2012-2015)
Mini revealed the coupé in June 2011. This is the first two-seater mini and the first three box design, the engine compartment, passenger compartment and the Luggage compartments are all separated. It will be the fastest production mini in history: in John Cooper works trim it from 0 to 62 miles per hour from 0 to 100 km / h in 6.4 seconds and a top speed of 149 km / h 240 km / h as it is powered by a turbocharged 208 HP 155 kW, 1.598 CC four-cylinder.
2.10. Production model. Mini Roadster 2012-2015. (Мини-Родстер 2012-2015)
The mini Roadster was first shown at the Frankfurt motor show in September 2009 and is a convertible version of mini coupe. The Roadster is available in three trim levels: Cooper s, John Cooper works.
2.11. Production model. Mini Paceman 2013 to 2016. (Мини Paceman 2013 года до 2016 года)
Than the mini three-door crossover version of the countryman debuted as a concept car at the Detroit auto show 2011. On 5 July 2012, senior Vice President mini brand management, Dr Kay Segler, announced that, "the mini Paceman is the official name of the brands seventh model, which will be launched next year in 2013 in the US" the production version was launched at the 2012 Paris motor show, with sales starting in most international markets in the second quarter of 2013.
2.12. Production model. Mini Hatch / hardtop 2014-present. (Мини Люк / хардтоп 2014-настоящее время)
The third generation Mini was introduced by BMW in November 2013, with sales starting in the first half of 2014. The new car is 98 mm longer, 44 mm wider and 7 mm taller than the previous model, with a 28 mm longer wheelbase and increased track width of 42 mm in the front and 34 mm at the rear. The increase in size in more interior and trunk volume increased to 211 liters.
3.1. Technical information. Internal designations. (Внутренние обозначения)
The original mini was designated ADO 15, the 15th model developed by the Austin design office. ADO 20 is the code title to the mini mark III. In 1961, Cooper was transferred to code ADO 50.
Until 2013, all Rover and mini models of the era BMW R-series model numbers assigned to them in the inheritance of the Minis original development within Rover group. Future models will have an F-series model. The following designations are known:
R56: "MK II" mini Hatch / hardtop range 2006-2013.
R58: Coupe 2012-2015. (Р58: Купе 2012-2015)
R59: Roadster 2012-2015. (R59: Родстер 2012-2015)
R55: "MK II" mini Clubman 2007-2014.
R57: "MK II" mini convertible 2009–.
F56: Mini Hatch / Hardtop 2014–.
R61: The 2013-2016. (R61: На 2013-2016 Годы)
R52: "MK" Mini Convertible 2004-2008.
Room R53: "MK" Mini Cooper s 2001-2006.
From F60: Countryman 2017–.
R50: "MK" Mini & Cooper 2001-2006.
Г60: Countryman 2010-2016. (Г60: Земляк 2010-2016)
F54 Mini Clubman In 2015.
F55, which is: 5-door hatch 2015–.
4. Development and production of. (Разработка и производство)
Before BMWs ownership, the traditional mini has been achieved Cowley, Oxford and Longbridge, Birmingham. At that time the production was rational, just to Longbridge and so it was when the last cars were made in Longbridge "natural home" for the new mini prior to BMW splitting the company. However, as a result of a change of ownership, BMW redesigned the entire Cowley plant, demolishing a large part of the factory to create a new factory and renamed this "plant Oxford", on the site of what was historically the pressed steel companys Cowley body plant and next door to what was historically the Morris.
Since 2006, hams hall plant produces the new mini petrol engines, plant Oxford is responsible for the production of the body, painting and Assembly, and plant Swindon produces body pressure and nodes that create a "mini production triangle". Mini claim that 60% of the components of the mini MK II come from suppliers based in the UK, compared with 40% for the model 2001. The Countryman is the first modern mini assembled outside the UK, with the contract won by Magna Steyr in Austria.
At the plant in Oxford 4.000 employees, called "associates", to produce every day up to 800 some 240.000 a year. The body shop at Cowley holds 429 robots, assembling 425 body panels, bodyshop, then moved to the neighbouring paint shop where paint robots apply the 14 exterior colour options and optional contrasting roof colours. Final Assembly is performed at Cowley, which involves the installation of 2.400 components to produce the numerous variants that can be ordered.
All Prince four-cylinder petrol engines for Mini and BMW are produced at Plant hams Hall near Birmingham, UK, which has about 800 employees. Diesel engines are produced at BMWs plant Steyr in Austria, previously made in France and England by PSA.
Mini-nodes and clamps, such as doors are supplied ex factory in Swindon, where 1.000 is working and 280 pressed parts are manufactured using 135 welding robots. The Swindon plant was originally Swindon pressings Ltd, founded in 1955 by the pressed steel company and became a wholly owned subsidiary of BMW group in may 2000.
Minis first developed in the United Kingdom on the BMW development Department.
In 2013, Assembly of the countryman was expanded to three locations: from April 2013 at BMWs plant near Chennai, India, exclusively for the Indian market from June 2013 at the BMW group Malaysia Assembly plant in Kulim, Kedah and the BMW manufacturing Thailand plant in Rayong from August 2013. So as the cars of 2014 are also collected under the contract, the company VDL Nedcar near Maastricht in Limburg.
5. Sale. (Продажа)
A total of about 5.3 million of the original two-door kids sold, making it the most popular British car of all time. Thousands of them still on the road, but the rest of the 1980s, the options firmly established as collectors.
Deliveries of Minis has ranged from 188.077 in 2006 to 232.425 in 2008. In 2009 216.538 cars were delivered, with 69.3% being mini Hatch / hardtop, 13.1% convertible models and 17.6% of the club option. Over 53% were the Cooper version, with 26.2% Cooper S, and the bulk of 20.2%.
In 2009, the Mini was Britains seventh best selling car - the first time in the BMW-era mini had appeared among the top 10 selling cars. He was also the flag of the seventh best-selling car in June 2010.
Mini sales worldwide were up 22% in 2011 compared to 2010, with 285.000 cars worldwide. In the US, the biggest brands on the market, 57.000 were sold in 2011, a 26% increase compared to 2010. The next two largest markets, the United Kingdom and Germany, saw 13% and 28% sales growth in comparison with 2010, respectively.
Were sold worldwide in 2012, a total of 301.526 mini cars. The largest national market in the United States with 66.123 units sold, followed by the United Kingdom 50.367. Mini countryman sold in a year in total 102.250 units.
6. Marketing. (Маркетинг)
Butler, Shine, stern & partners, minis advertising Agency, produced a video series in 2007 called hammer & Cooper Director: Todd Phillips as an advertising campaign for Mini.
Crispin porter Bogusky, the advertising Agency Minis, produced a movie called counterfeit mini Coopers as part of the campaign.
For advertising mini Clubmans 2008 introduction to the Chinese market, Beijing mini offered a Mini Rickshaw, which uses the rear part to the mini club.
In New Zealand, mini sponsored mad men, broadcast on Prime. Was created special places for the first season, they took the form of a satirical, sexist 60S-style television advertising. The second season of on the spot was a pastiche of mad men opening credits, with a silhouette figure tumbling out of an office building, landing in the drivers seat of the mini.
7. Disputes. (Споры)
It is reported that BMW was ordered by U.S. regulators to reduce the fuel-economy ratings on four 2014 mini Coopers, as the test results, EPA does not match the performance of automakers.
8. Movies. (Фильмы)
In 1969, the original British mini was shown in the gold-Heist movie the Italian job starring Michael Caine and Noel Coward. In 2003, the new Mini Cooper was featured in the remake of the Italian job. One pepper red mini Cooper s r53 room Hatch, electric blue mini Cooper r53 the room was a hatch pepper white Mini Cooper r53 the room also had a Hatch.
9.1. Demonstration models. Mini e 2009 and 2010. (Миниая e 2009 и 2010 годах)
Mini E is a front wheel drive car with a motor version of the mini and was presented in 2008 at the motor show in Los Angeles, with nominal electric motor 204 HP 150 kW, 201 HP and 220 N ∙ M 160 lb⋅ft, 380 V 35 kilowatt-hours 130 MJ Li-ion battery with distance of 240 kilometres 150 Mi. It has a maximum speed of 152 km / h 94 km / h the Vehicle gliders are built in the mini factory in Oxford while batteries electric drive and power electronics are manufactured in Munich. Components are sent to a specially equipped manufacturing complex situated on BMW plant premises where the electric motor, battery units, performance electronics and transmission can be integrated.
Mini E is a demonstration car part of BMWs "project I", which will be held in mid-2011, a similar trial with the BMW ActiveE all-electric vehicle to be built on the basis of lessons learned from mini e field trials. The last phase of "project I" is the development of a megacity urban vehicle MV, the electric car, a new brand that will be sold separately from BMW or Mini, and is expected to go into mass production between 2013 and 2015. Field trials began in June 2009 and 450 mini E through leasing to private users in Los Angeles and new York / new Jersey region. In may 2010 BMW announced that leasing could be renewed for next year at a lower rental price. Another field test was launched in the UK in December 2009, which was presented to more than 40 mini e cars handed to private users for a two consecutive six-month field test period. Additional field trials are held in Germany and France. This trial program allowed the BMW group became the worlds first major car manufacturer to deploy a fleet of more than 500 electric cars for private use.
10. Concept cars. (Концепт-кары)
There were several mini concept cars produced to show future ideas and new models such as the ACV30 in 1997 and the crossover in 2008 which became the mini countryman in 2010.
On ACV30 described several elements that affect eventual new mini of 2001 such as the black a-pillars, and a chunky wheel arch detailing and white roof. The concept was attributed to the BMW designer Adrian van Hooydonk and Frank Stephenson.
10.1. Concept cars. Alternative fuel versions. (Альтернативное топливо версий)
BMW demonstrated a hydrogen-powered internal combustion technology in some of their concept cars in 2000 and 2001 and showed hydrogen powered concept car in 2001 at the Frankfurt motor show. The car differs from the electric motor hydrogen concepts, such as the Honda options that it uses a cylinder-based internal combustion engine.
All-electric mini being used at the British Embassy in Mexico that uses around 200 kg, 440 lbs of lithium-ion batteries. Three electric Minis were also made for use in some subway scenes in the 2003 film the Italian job to satisfy the subway authorities concerns over possible carbon monoxide poisoning.
Protein PML Flightlink has developed a series-hybrid prototype conversion, called "mini QED", replacing the drivetrain with an 160 HP 120 kW electric motor in each wheel and an efficient onboard gasoline generator.
11. Motorsport. (Мотоспорт)
Mini Cooper s won the Rally Monte Carlo in 1964, 1965 and 1967. Minis initially won the first, second and third in the 1966 rally, but were disqualified for a controversial use of a variable adjustment of the resistance of the dimming circuit in place of dual-filament lamp.
Auto in the r56 challenge was entered in the 2008 mini challenge. The mini challenge Motorsport category runs globally, with the categories in Germany, Australia, England, Spain, New Zealand, Saudi Arabia beginning in 2010.
RSR motorsports has entered three mini Coopers in the Koni challenge series street tuner.
11.1. Motorsport. Mini countryman WRC. (Мини земляк ВКР)
On 27 July 2010 mini announced plans to enter the world rally championship. The countryman is the chosen donor model and Prodrive have been selected to prepare the mini countryman WRC. The factory team competed in a reduced programme in the WRC season in 2011, before cutting funding. Prodrive will still produce all specs of the countryman WRC cars, but also to self-Finance programme for 2012.
12. Awards and criticism. (Награды и критика)
The original two-door mini has won numerous awards, perhaps the most notable being: "Car of the century" by Autocar magazine in 1995, "number one classic car of all time" classic and sports car magazine in 1996 and "European car of the century" in a worldwide Internet poll conducted by the prestigious global automotive elections Foundation in 1999. Original mini took second place in the category "Best car of the century" in the same survey in a model T Ford.
Mini Cooper / Cooper s 2001-2006 won the North American car of the year award in 2003. The convertible model received the most spirited / entry-level category international auto 2005. After the launch of the Mk II mini, Top gear named the new Cooper s their small car of 2006. The car was a runner up car in the world 2007. In 2008 the Green version of the mini Cooper D, was nominated for the car WhatGreenCar.com of the year awards. The judges commended the Cooper D for its EfficientDynamics equipped with start / stop and regenerative braking technology and were impressed with the car driving experience. The Cooper D has reached the shortlist for the Green car awards, but lost to the Ford Focus ECOnetic. In April 2010 Kelley Blue book included the Mini Cooper as one of its top 10 green cars for 2010.
Dr. Alex Moulton, designer of the suspension for the original two-door mini, spoke about the new Mini in an interview with "mini-world": "it is enormous - the original Mini was the best packaged car of all time is an example of how not to do it. Its huge on the outside and weighs the same as an Austin Maxi. Protection of the accident was taken too far. I mean, what do you want, an armored car? This is inappropriate because it has no part in the mini story."
The Pulitzer prize-winning automotive journalist Dan Neil has suggested that with the introduction of the countryman, mini had pushed the Marque beyond relevance by making a car so long, wide and high, he left the internal logic of the brand: excellent handling in a tiny size. At the 2013 international engine of the year awards, which took place on 5 June 2013, mini won an award for its 1.6 liter four-cylinder TwinPower Turbo from the Mini Cooper s for the third consecutive time in the category of 1.4 to 1.8 liter engines. The engine has "twin-scroll turbocharging with an overboost function and direct petrol injection and valve control based on the Valvetronic system" and has an output of 135 kW / 184 HP and provides enough power for the Mini Cooper S accelerates from 0-100 in 7.0 seconds, and in 2013 available for Mini Cooper s Countryman and Mini Cooper s and 4 assists can also be added to the configuration.
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Mini coupe and Roadster is two-seater sports car, which was designed and manufactured at mini in the period between 2011 and 2015. Hardtop coupe was introduc...